开源日报 每天推荐一个 GitHub 优质开源项目和一篇精选英文科技或编程文章原文,坚持阅读《开源日报》,保持每日学习的好习惯。
今日推荐开源项目:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
今日推荐英文原文:《How Popular is JavaScript in 2019?》
开源日报第425期:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
今日推荐开源项目:《简单漂亮 cssfx》传送门:GitHub链接
推荐理由:一组简单漂亮的 CSS 样式集合,不需要其他样式库的支持,你可以很简单的在网页上就预览到它们的效果——和复制它们。实际上作为一个测试自己 CSS 实力的方式这样很不错,把自己能够做出的好用的样式一一摆出来,兴许能够看到新的样式组合的可能性,之后要复用这些样式也会很方便。
今日推荐英文原文:《How Popular is JavaScript in 2019?》作者:Eric Elliott
原文链接:https://medium.com/javascript-scene/how-popular-is-javascript-in-2019-823712f7c4b1
推荐理由:不得不承认,JS 的确很流行

How Popular is JavaScript in 2019?

When people ask me what language they should learn, I tell them to start with JavaScript. Why? JavaScript is the standard programming language of the web, and the software you write with JavaScript will be usable by everybody.
Software ate the world, the web ate software, and JavaScript ate the web.
This is enough for me. I want to write software that anyone can use, and virtually everyone who has an internet connected device with a screen can use apps written in JavaScript.

There are lots of ways to rank programming languages. A handful of indexes dominate Google for the search term “programming languge index”. Pick your favorite. Those indexes rank JavaScript #7, #3, and #1, respectively.

No matter where it falls in your favorite ranking, JavaScript is a top contender in real-world usage. I frequently argue that it’s the most used programming language in the world. What I mean by that is that more programmers write JavaScript than any other programming language in the world. If you piled all the source code written in the last decade into piles, JavaScript would be the biggest pile.

This is reflected in the number of packages available in programming languages package repositories. JavaScript’s standard package manager has more packages than Java and PHP combined:
开源日报第425期:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
This trend is also reflected on GitHub:
开源日报第425期:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
GitHub Top Languages Over Time

But don’t these other languages have better standard libraries? Wouldn’t that cause a lot more packages to be needed for JavaScript? Sure. Absolutely. I’ll give you that. And that might account for a few thousand packages. But we’re not talking about a few thousand. There are over 800,000 packages on npm, most of them available for open source use in your applications. Clearly, there’s a lot more to this dominance than the quality of the standard library.

Let’s corroborate this with some more data. As I mentioned, JavaScript is the standard programming language of the web, and the web is the most used computing platform ever built.

There are over 1.6 billion web sites in the world, and JavaScript is used on 95% of them (1.52 billion web sites with JavaScript). By virtue of this fact, virtually every computing device in use today runs JavaScript, including iPhones, Android phones, Apple Mac OS, Microsoft Windows, Linux, smart TVs, etc.

There are about 800 million Windows 10 devices installed in the world, and roughly 800,000 apps in the Windows Store. That’s radically under-counting the number of apps that work on Windows, though. Windows app distribution was dominated by direct downloads a long time before the concept of official app stores became popular, and Windows 10 will happily run apps written for previous versions of windows. It’s possible Windows will run as many as 35 million apps — written in a variety of languages, dominated by C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, and C#.
开源日报第425期:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
Web vs Windows, iOS, Android by raw app numbers. The missing ones are too small to see relative to websites.

Java is another top contender for the most used programming language by virtue of the fact that it’s the native language for the most popular mobile computing platform in the world, Android. Want to write a native app for an Android phone? It will almost certainly be written in Java and be installed from the Android store.

There are 2.3 billion mobile devices running Android and apps written for Android. But there are only 2.1 million apps in the Android store.

Want to write a native app for iOS? There are about 1.8 million apps in the Apple store, most of which are written in Objective C or Swift. That’s two languages competing for dominance on the 2nd most popular mobile computing platform in the world.

Server-side languages are certainly popular, including Java, Python, PHP, Ruby, and Scala, but Node.js is also very popular on the server side, and it uses JavaScript.

There are roughly 7 billion IoT devices in the world. The top platforms are AWS IoT (C, JavaScript) and Google Cloud IoT (JavaScript, C, C++, Go). Common languages for device programming for IoT include C, C++, JavaScript, and Java. In spite of the sheer number of mass market manufactured IoT devices there are, there are orders of magnitude fewer software developers programming for IoT devices than there are programming for the web platform, and orders of magnitude less code being written for them.

All that said, for the first decade or so of the web, JavaScript was used for little more than mouse hover animations and little calculations to make static websites feel more interactive. Let’s assume 90% of all websites using JavaScript use it in a trivial way. That still leaves 150 million substantial JavaScript applications:
开源日报第425期:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
Web vs everything else, assuming 90% of web sites don’t qualify as “apps”.

Even if we decimate the web numbers again, the web platform would still be bigger than Android and iOS combined:
开源日报第425期:《简单漂亮 cssfx》
Cut out 90% of websites with JS, then do it again for good measure, and it’s still bigger than Android + iOS combined.

But this is getting a little ridiculous now, because the most popular apps today are things like Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Instagram, Netflix, Hulu, Spotify, Uber, and games that compile for multiple platforms (e.g., Fortnite), rather than a lot of native Windows apps. Interesting trend: Most of these have web versions, and some can’t be found in the Microsoft Store.

My favorite apps for Android are Progressive Web Apps like Twitter (written in JavaScript), because they’re light and fast, and I don’t have to wait for them to install to start using them.

And this is my favorite thing about JavaScript, because that Twitter PWA works on my Android Phone, on my iPad, on my desktop browser, and I never have to install it anywhere. On my mobile devices, it looks and acts just like a native app, and even when I’m offline, I can browse tweets already downloaded and cached.

If you want your apps to be usable by the most people, JavaScript is a great choice.

Eric Elliott is a distributed systems expert and author of the books, “Composing Software” and “Programming JavaScript Applications”. As co-founder of DevAnywhere.io, he teaches developers the skills they need to work remotely and embrace work/life balance. He builds and advises development teams for crypto projects, and has contributed to software experiences for Adobe Systems, Zumba Fitness, The Wall Street Journal, ESPN, BBC, and top recording artists including Usher, Frank Ocean, Metallica, and many more.
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