每天推荐一个 GitHub 优质开源项目和一篇精选英文科技或编程文章原文,欢迎关注开源日报。交流QQ群:202790710;微博:https://weibo.com/openingsource;电报群 https://t.me/OpeningSourceOrg

2018年11月24日:开源日报第261期

今日推荐开源项目:《掘金翻译计划 gold-miner》传送门:GitHub链接

推荐理由:掘金翻译计划是一个专门翻译掘金网上英文文章的社区,TensorFlow 的官中文档就是他们翻译的,除此之外,还包括诸如人工智能和区块链这样前沿的技术以及前后端这样泛用的技术,在需要学习这些技术的时候来这个社区寻找合适的文章也是一个选择。当然了,他们也欢迎新译者的加入和新文章的推荐。


今日推荐英文原文:《How to save hours of debugging with logs》作者:Maya Gilad

原文链接:https://medium.freecodecamp.org/how-to-save-hours-of-debugging-with-logs-6989cc533370

推荐理由:作者在接触日志时获得的一些经验,兴许这会在需要调查日志来修复错误的时候帮上忙

How to save hours of debugging with logs

2018年11月24日:开源日报第261期

A good logging mechanism helps us in our time of need.

When we’re handling a production failure or trying to understand an unexpected response, logs can be our best friend or our worst enemy.

Their importance for our ability to handle failures is enormous. When it comes to our day to day work, when we design our new production service/feature, we sometimes overlook their importance. We neglect to give them proper attention.

When I started developing, I made a few logging mistakes that cost me many sleepless nights. Now, I know better, and I can share with you a few practices I’ve learned over the years.

Not enough disk space

When developing on our local machine, we usually don’t mind using a file handler for logging. Our local disk is quite large and the amount of log entries being written is very small.

That is not the case in our production machines. Their local disk usually has limited free disk space. In time the disk space won’t be able to store log entries of a production service. Therefore, using a file handler will eventually result in losing all new log entries.

If you want your logs to be available on the service’s local disk, don’t forget to use a rotating file handler. This can limit the max space that your logs will consume. The rotating file handler will handle overriding old log entries to make space for new ones.

Eeny, meeny, miny, moe

2018年11月24日:开源日报第261期

Our production service is usually spread across multiple machines. Searching a specific log entry will require investigating all them. When we’re in a hurry to fix our service, there’s no time to waste on trying to figure out where exactly did the error occur.

Instead of saving logs on local disk, stream them into a centralized logging system. This allows you to search all them at the same time.

If you’re using AWS or GCP — you can use their logging agent. The agent will take care of streaming the logs into their logging search engine.

To log or not log? this is the question…

2018年11月24日:开源日报第261期

There is a thin line between too few and too many logs. In my opinion, log entries should be meaningful and only serve the purpose of investigating issues on our production environment. When you’re about to add a new log entry, you should think about how you will use it in the future. Try to answer this question: What information does the log message provide the developer who will read it?

Too many times I see logs being used for user analysis. Yes, it is much easier to write “user watermelon2018 has clicked the button” to a log entry than to develop a new events infrastructure. This is not the what logs are meant for (and parsing log entries is not fun either, so extracting insights will take time).

A needle in a haystack

In the following screenshot we see three requests which were processed by our service.

How long did it take to process the second request? Is it 1ms, 4ms or 6ms?

Since we don’t have any additional information on each log entry, we cannot be sure which is the correct answer. Having the request id in each log entry could have reduced the number of possible answers to one. Moreover, having metadata inside each log entry can help us filter the logs and focus on the relevant entries.

Let’s add some metadata to our log entry:

The metadata is placed as part of the free text section of the entry. Therefore, each developer can enforce his/her own standards and style. This will result in a complicated search.

Our metadata should be defined as part of the entry’s fixed structure.

Each message in the log was pushed aside by our metadata. Since we read from left to right, we should place the message as close as possible to the beginning of the line. In addition, placing the message in the beginning “breaks” the line’s structure. This helps us with identifying the message faster.

Placing the timestamp and log level prior to the message can assist us in understanding the flow of events. The rest of the metadata is mainly used for filtering. At this stage it is no longer necessary and can be placed at the end of the line.

An error which is logged under INFO will be lost between all normal log entries. Using the entire range of logging levels (ERROR, DEBUG, etc.) can reduce search time significantly. If you want to read more about log levels, you can continue reading here.

Logs analysis

Searching files for log entries is a long and frustrating process. It usually requires us to process very large files and sometimes even to use regular expressions.

Nowadays, we can take advantage of fast search engines such as Elastic Search and index our log entries in it. Using ELK stack will also provide you the ability to analyze your logs and answer questions such as:

  1. Is the error localized to one machine? or does it occur in all the environment?
  2. When did the error started? What is the error’s occurrence rate?

Being able to perform aggregations on log entries can provide hints for possible failure’s causes that will not be noticed just by reading a few log entries.

In conclusion, do not take logging for granted. On each new feature you develop, think about your future self and which log entry will help you and which will just distract you.

Remember: your logs will help you solve production issues only if you let them.


每天推荐一个 GitHub 优质开源项目和一篇精选英文科技或编程文章原文,欢迎关注开源日报。交流QQ群:202790710;微博:https://weibo.com/openingsource;电报群 https://t.me/OpeningSourceOrg