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2018年7月4日:开源日报第118期

今日推荐开源项目:《Vue 全家桶制造 vue-music-webapp》GitHub链接

推荐理由:这个项目是作者为了练习使用 Vue 全家桶而做的音乐 app。界面上太适合移动端所以在电脑上看有点大过头了,而且布局配色上很像网易云音乐……不过这种能够自己动手做去学习的做法是非常好的,任何事情只有自己动手做一遍,才能够积累经验,在这里也鼓励读者朋友们多多自己动手,纸上得来终觉浅,欲知此事须躬行。

超大电脑版:

2018年7月4日:开源日报第118期

今日推荐英文原文:《How to escape async/await hell》作者:Aditya Agarwal

原文链接:https://medium.freecodecamp.org/avoiding-the-async-await-hell-c77a0fb71c4c

推荐理由:虽然异步和等待帮我们解决了回调问题,但是乱用异步和等待会让性能下降,有的时候可以并行的东西就不需要等了

How to escape async/await hell

2018年7月4日:开源日报第118期

async/await freed us from callback hell, but people have started abusing it — leading to the birth of async/await hell.

In this article, I will try to explain what async/await hell is, and I’ll also share some tips to escape it.

What is async/await hell

While working with Asynchronous JavaScript, people often write multiple statements one after the other and slap an await before a function call. This causes performance issues, as many times one statement doesn’t depend on the previous one — but you still have to wait for the previous one to complete.

An example of async/await hell

Consider if you wrote a script to order a pizza and a drink. The script might look like this:

On the surface it looks correct, and it does work. But this is not a good implementation, because it leaves concurrency out of the picture. Let’s understand what its doing so that we can nail down the issue.

Explanation

We have wrapped our code in an async IIFE. The following occurs in this exact order:

  1. Get the list of pizzas.
  2. Get the list of drinks.
  3. Choose one pizza from the list.
  4. Choose one drink from the list.
  5. Add the chosen pizza to the cart.
  6. Add the chosen drink to the cart.
  7. Order the items in the cart.

So what’s wrong ?

As I stressed earlier, all these statements execute one by one. There is no concurrency here. Think carefully: why are we waiting to get the list of pizzas before trying to get the list of drinks? We should just try to get both the lists together. However when we need to choose a pizza, we do need to have the list of pizzas beforehand. The same goes for the drinks.

So we can conclude that the pizza related work and drink related work can happen in parallel, but the individual steps involved in pizza related work need to happen sequentially (one by one).

Another example of bad implementation

This JavaScript snippet will get the items in the cart and place a request to order them.

In this case, the for loop has to wait for the sendRequest() function to complete before continuing the next iteration. However, we don’t actually need to wait. We want to send all the requests as quickly as possible and then we can wait for all of them to complete.

I hope that now you are getting closer to understanding what is async/await hell and how severely it affects the performance of your program. Now I want to ask you a question.

What if we forget the await keyword ?

If you forget to use await while calling an async function, the function starts executing. This means that await is not required for executing the function. The async function will return a promise, which you can use later.

Another consequence is that the compiler won’t know that you want to wait for the function to execute completely. Thus the compiler will exit the program without finishing the async task. So we do need the await keyword.

One interesting property of promises is that you can get a promise in one line and wait for it to resolve in another. This is the key to escaping async/await hell.

As you can see, doSomeAsyncTask() is returning a promise. At this point doSomeAsyncTask() has started its execution. To get the resolved value of the promise, we use the await keyword and that will tell JavaScript to not execute the next line immediately, but instead wait for the promise to resolve and then execute the next line.

How to get out of async/await hell ?

You should follow these steps to escape async/await hell.

Find statements which depend on the execution of other statements

In our first example, we were selecting a pizza and a drink. We concluded that, before choosing a pizza, we need to have the list of pizzas. And before adding the pizza to the cart, we’d need to choose a pizza. So we can say that these three steps depend on each other. We cannot do one thing until we have finished the previous thing.

But if we look at it more broadly, we find that selecting a pizza doesn’t depend on selecting a drink, so we can select them in parallel. That is one thing that machines can do better than we can.

Thus we have discovered some statements which depend on the execution of other statements and some which do not.

Group-dependent statements in async functions

As we saw, selecting pizza involves dependent statements like getting the list of pizzas, choosing one, and then adding the chosen pizza to the cart. We should group these statements in an async function. This way we get two async functions, selectPizza() and selectDrink() .

Execute these async functions concurrently

We then take advantage of the event loop to run these async non blocking functions concurrently. Two common patterns of doing this is returning promises early and the Promise.all method.

Let’s fix the examples

Following the three steps, let’s apply them on our examples.

Now we have grouped the statements into two functions. Inside the function, each statement depends on the execution of the previous one. Then we concurrently execute both the functions selectPizza() and selectDrink() .

In the second example, we need to deal with an unknown number of promises. Dealing with this situation is super easy: we just create an array and push the promises in it. Then using Promise.all() we concurrently wait for all the promises to resolve.

I hope this article helped you see beyond the basics of async/await, and also helped you improve the performance of your application.

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每天推荐一个 GitHub 优质开源项目和一篇精选英文科技或编程文章原文,欢迎关注开源日报。交流QQ群:202790710;微博:https://weibo.com/openingsource;电报群 https://t.me/OpeningSourceOrg